Vitamin E, Tocopherol, Alpha-Tocopherol
natural forms include alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherol
DL-alpha tocopherol is the synthetic form
vitamin E requires the presence of bile for absorption
vitamin E is stored in the pituitary and aderenal glands
there is no correlation between serum levels and vitamin E stores
protects cell membranes, fatty acids, nerves and muscle
anti-inflammatory - inhibits lypoxygenase (leukotriene synthesis)
anti-platelet effects - increases prostaglandin I2 production
increases HDL, decreases vascular fragility
RDA - 15 iu qd, Optimal 600 iu
requirement proportional to intake of essential fatty acids
wheat germ oil, sunflower seeds
1800 iu qd can cause prolonged blood clotting time
nausea, flatulence, and diarrea may occur
may cause flushing when used in excess (2000 to 4000 mg rather than 5-20 mg)
AZT - vitamin E may decrease bone marrow toxicity
Coumadin - use caution (controversial)
Phenothiazine - large doses may reduce tardive dyskinesia
iron binds with vitamin E and inactivates it
vitamin E is synergistic with selenium
vitamin A prevents oxidation of vitamin E
large doses of vitamin E may inhibit absorption of vitamin K
Deficiency is rare in humans
degeneration of the posterior columns of the spinal cord
selective loss of large-caliber, myelinated axons in peripheral nerves
appearance of spheroids in the gracile and cuneate nuclei of the brain.
cataracts, paresis of gaze
areflexia, gait disturbance
decreased proprioceptive and vibratory sensation
dry skin, eczema, psoriasis
easy bruising, decreased clotting time
anemia, sickle cell anemia, beta thalassemia
PMS, hot flashes, fibrocystic disease
atherosclerosis - anti-platelet effects, increases HDL
cystic fibrosis - anti-fibrotic
dysmenorrhea, menopause, PMS
fibrocystic breast disease
nocturnal cramping, restless leg syndrome
intermittent claudication - decreases vascular fragility
Osgood-Schlatter's disease - vit E and selenium work well
muscular dystrophy - protects nerves and muscle
herpetic lesions, psoriasis, allergies, inflammatory thrombophlebitis
SIDS, premature infants, Down's syndrome, spontaneous abortions
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