Vitamin B1, Thiamin, Thiamine
Vitamin B1, Thiamin
The active form is thyamin pyrophosphate, Thpp
Thaimin is best absorbed in an acid medium
Allicin (garlic) combines with thiamin and renders it more absorbable
Thpp is a cofactor for:
2-Keto Glutarate -> succinyl CoA (note: forms Heme)
pyruvate -> acetyl CoA
ribose 5P -> glyceraldehyde 3P
oxydative decarboxylation - pyruvate to acetyl CoA, alpha-keto acids
transketolase - pentose monophosphate shunt pathway
metabolism of carbohydrates, fat and protein
Thiamin may have a specific role in neurons. Thiamine and its esters are present in axonal membranes, and electrical stimulation of nerves effects the hydrolysis and release of thiamine diphosphate and triphosphate.
RDA - 1.0-1.4 mg, Optimal - 15-30 mg
Requirement increased by pregnancy, lactation, thyrotoxicosis, fever.
Accelerated loss may occur with diuretic therapy, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis,
Defective absorption can occur in malabsorption states, alcoholism,
chronic malnutrition, and folate deficiency.
Brewer's yeast, sunflower seeds, brown rice
substantial loss takes place during cooking above 100°C.
little evidence of toxicity
anaphylactic reactions may occur when given by IM or IV
Interactions destroyed by anti-thiamine factor in black tea
destroyed by chlorinated water, and chlorogenic acid in coffee
Wet beriberi cardiovascular disease characterized by edema
1. peripheral vasodilatation leading to a high-output state
2. retention of sodium and water leading to edema
3. biventricular myocardial failure
Dry beriberi - neurologic disease characterized by ÒburningÓ feet
1. peripheral neuropathy
2. Wernicke's encephalopathy (cerebral beriberi)
3. Korsakoff psychosis
Histologic lesion is a non-inflammatory degeneration of myelin sheaths
vomiting, fever, ataxia
nystagmus (horizontal more commonly than vertical)
oculomotor muscle palsies - unilateral or bilateral ophthalmoplegia
mental deterioration progresses into global confusion, coma and death
psychosis, frequently persistent;
the residual mental state is characterized by gaps in memory, confabulation,
and disordered temporal sequencing.
muscle weakness, calf tenderness, ataxia
indigestion, constipation, anorexia
infant symptoms appear suddenly, involving cardiac failure and cyanosis
depression, insomnia, neurosis, anxiety
anemia - cofactor for Heme synthesis
sensory neuropathy, glaucoma
sciatica, trigeminal neuralgia
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