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Folic Acid, Folate, Vitamin B9


Folic Acid, Folate

Biochemistry

folic acid is formed from glutamate:
poly glutamate -> mono glutamate -> methyl tetrahydro folate
folic acid is needed to form glutamate:
arginine + histidine -> urocanate -> formimino glutamate
formimino glutamate + THF-C -> 5-foramino THF + glutamate
folic acid is used in homocysteine metabolism (cofactor B12):
homocysteine + THF-C -> THF + methionine
folic acid is used in pyramidine synthesis for DNA replication
dUMP + THF-C -> THF + TMP
THF-C x2 + 5-P-ribosylamine -> IMP

Metabolism

vegetables stored at room temperature lose considerable amounts

Function

facilitates synthesis of purines (DNA synthesis)
essential for the formation and maturation of red and white blood cells
folacin is the single carbon carrier in the formation of heme
xanthine oxidase inhibitor (released from homogenized milk)
decreases homocysteine (with B-12)

Requirements

RDA - 400 mcg, pregnancy - 800 mcg, lactation - 500 mcg

Sources

chicken liver, Brewer's yeast

Interactions

Aminopterin (used to treat leukemia) can create deficiency
Sulphasalazine (used to treat ulcerative colitis) can create deficiency
Anticonvulsant drugs can create deficiency
Birth control pills interfere with folate

Toxicity

Overdose is uncommon and occurs at extremely high doses
Folic acid may mask neurological symptoms even though it corrects pernicious anemia.

Deficiency

Pediatrics
poor growth
Hematology
megaloblastic anemia
GI
glossitis, GI tract disturbances

Therapeutics

Hematology
megaloblastic anemia
Obstetrics
prevention of neural tube defects and cleft palate
increased fracture of chromosomes
Musculoskeletal
restless leg syndrome
Gynecology
cervical dysplasia
Neurology
depression
GI
malabsorption and GI inflammation
gingivitis - oral tissue use large amounts

 

 

 

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