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Biotin, Biopeiderm


Metabolism

Biotin is absorbed in the small intestines

Requirements

RDA - 100-200 mcg
Optimal - 300 mcg

Raw eggs contain avadin, which inhibits biotin absorption.

Functions

Biotin is essential for carboxylation:
Acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids
Pyruvate carboxylase is a critical enzyme for gluconeogenesis
Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase is needed to form leucene, an essential amino acid
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase is involved in the deamination of amino acids

Biotin is required for the synthesis of pancreatic amylase and niacin
Biotin may be involved in the synthesis and release of insulin

Biotin may play a role in DNA replication and transcription

Biochemistry

propionyl CoA -> methyl malonyl CoA (forms Succinyl CoA)
pyruvate -> oxaloacetate
acetyl CoA -> malonyl CoA

Toxicity

None known

Deficiency

Common manifestations resemble those of essential fatty acid deficiency. Avidin, a protein found in egg whites, binds to biotin and prevents absorption. Biotinase and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency are hereditary disorders.

Dermatology
dermatitis with scales and hardening often starting near the eyes
perioral dermatitis, conjunctivitis, alopecia, hair loss
Gastrology
anorexia, lassitude, nausea
Musculoskeletal
muscle atrophy, ataxia
Children
developmental delay.

Drug Interactions

Long-term anti-convulsant (anti-seizure) therapy reduces biotin levels.
Primidone and carbamazepine inhibit biotin absorption in the small intestine.
Phenobarbital, phentyoin, and carbamazepine increase urinary excretion of biotin.

Therapeutics

Endocrinology
diabetes mellitus - stimulates glucokinase, stimulates insulin secretion
one study showed that 9 mg/day lowered glucose levels by 45%

Dermatology
seborrheic dermatitis in infancy (cradle cap)
brittle fingernails - 2.5 mg/day increases nail thickness by 25%



 

 

 

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