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Sodium, Na


Functions
Water balance - sodium is pumped out of cells

Requirements
RDA - 2 g qd

Interactions
excessive sodium increases the need for potassium
lithium increases excretion of sodium

Hyponatremia
Signs the same symptoms as for extracellular fluid deficiency:
weakness, restlessness, delerium, hyperpnea, oliguria
increased temperature, flushed skin
abdominal cramps, convulsions
nausea, anorexia
if sodium is lost but fluid is not:
mental confusion, headache, coma
muscle twitching and weakness, convulsions, oliguria
Hyponatremia is one of the causes of seizures in infants.
Etiology
excessive perspiration, diuretic use, low dietary intake
gastrointestinal loss - severe diarrhea, vomiting
pancreatic or biliary fistula
burns, fibrocystic disease
diabetic acidosis, adrenal insufficiencys


Hypernatremia
Etiology
severe diarrhea, decreased water intake, febrile states
ingestion of sodium chloride (table salt)
excessive water loss through rapid and deep respiration
renal failure
Signs
the same symptoms as for extracellular fluid excess:
pitting edema, excessive weight gain, hypertension, dyspnea
if due to dehydration:
concentrated urine and oliguria, dry mucous membranes
thirst, flushed skin, increased temperature
tachycardia, hypertension

Therapeutics
EENT
glaucoma
Endocrine
hypoadrenalism

 

 

 

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