Water balance - sodium is pumped out of cells
RDA - 2 g qd
excessive sodium increases the need for potassium
lithium increases excretion of sodium
Signs the same symptoms as for extracellular fluid deficiency:
weakness, restlessness, delerium, hyperpnea, oliguria
increased temperature, flushed skin
abdominal cramps, convulsions
if sodium is lost but fluid is not:
mental confusion, headache, coma
muscle twitching and weakness, convulsions, oliguria
Hyponatremia is one of the causes of seizures in infants.
excessive perspiration, diuretic use, low dietary intake
gastrointestinal loss - severe diarrhea, vomiting
pancreatic or biliary fistula
burns, fibrocystic disease
diabetic acidosis, adrenal insufficiencys
severe diarrhea, decreased water intake, febrile states
ingestion of sodium chloride (table salt)
excessive water loss through rapid and deep respiration
the same symptoms as for extracellular fluid excess:
pitting edema, excessive weight gain, hypertension, dyspnea
if due to dehydration:
concentrated urine and oliguria, dry mucous membranes
thirst, flushed skin, increased temperature
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