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Copper, Cu


Functions
cofactor for cytochromic oxidase (electron transport)
cofactor for dopamine b hydroxase (dopamine -> NE)
cofactor for tyrinase (tyrosine -> melanin)
collagen and elastin cross linking, myelin synthesis
estrogen breakdown, anti-inflammatory, cancer inhibition
cholesterol reduction

Requirements
RDA - none, adequate dietary intake - 1-3 mg qd

Sources
beef liver

Deficiency
hemolysis with liver and brain damage, anemia, neutropenia
degeneration of vasculature
depigmentation of skin, kinky hair
hypotonia, hypothermia

Genetics
Menkes' disease - lack of copper absorption and uptake
Wilson's disease - lack of copper excretion causes accumulation

Therapeutics
anemia, enhance immunity
vitiligo, skin cancer
prevention of aortic aneurysm - deficiency in animals cause aneurysm
prevention of cardiovascular disease - lowers cholesterol
prevention of stomach cancer

Toxicity
some experience nausea and vomiting
long term use may cause cirrhosis of the liver
large doses of vitamin C lowers copper levels
toxicity - poor memory, depression, insomnia and joint pain
migraines - catechol synthesis may be inhibited by copper excess

Labs
cholesterol - HDL ratio




 

 

 

Fantastic new books!

Complementary and Alternative Medical Lab Testing is chock full of references for over 100 diseases.

Nutritional Genetics is also a referenced resource with sections on over 100 diseases.

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A Brief Introduction to Naturopathy and Naturopathic Medicine describes the history and modalities. It's also FREE.

 


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