cofactor for cytochromic oxidase (electron transport)
cofactor for dopamine b hydroxase (dopamine -> NE)
cofactor for tyrinase (tyrosine -> melanin)
collagen and elastin cross linking, myelin synthesis
estrogen breakdown, anti-inflammatory, cancer inhibition
RDA - none, adequate dietary intake - 1-3 mg qd
hemolysis with liver and brain damage, anemia, neutropenia
degeneration of vasculature
depigmentation of skin, kinky hair
Menkes' disease - lack of copper absorption and uptake
Wilson's disease - lack of copper excretion causes accumulation
anemia, enhance immunity
vitiligo, skin cancer
prevention of aortic aneurysm - deficiency in animals cause aneurysm
prevention of cardiovascular disease - lowers cholesterol
prevention of stomach cancer
some experience nausea and vomiting
long term use may cause cirrhosis of the liver
large doses of vitamin C lowers copper levels
toxicity - poor memory, depression, insomnia and joint pain
migraines - catechol synthesis may be inhibited by copper excess
cholesterol - HDL ratio
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