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Phenylalanine, L-Phenylalanine, DL-Phenylalanine


Phenylalanine

Metabolism
Phenylalanine is a precursor of tyrosine
Phenylalanine is metabolized in the liver with phenylalanine hydroxylase
Phenylalanine is a precursor of phenylthylamine (brain neurotransmitter)
phenylthylamine is found in chocolate

Forms
L-Phenylalanine is the form used in living organisms
D-Phenylalanine is synthetic and can only be converted into phenylethylamine
DL-phenylalanine is a combination of both D and L forms

DL-phenylalanine has analgesic and antidepressant effects
L-phenylalanine is a precursor of brain neurotransmitters

Genetics
phenylketonuria (PKU) is a deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase

Chemistry
phenylalanine -> tyrosine -> L-dopa -> dopamine -> NE -> EPI

Functions
precursor of brain neurotransmitters

Requirements
RDA - 1 g qd

Sources
cottage cheese, chicken, cheddar cheese

Deficiency
depression and diminished growth

Therapeutics
depression, chronic pain, Parkinson's

Toxicity
may cause anxiety, jitteriness and hyperactivity in children
may cause migraines and hypertension due to tyramine sensitivity
Interactions tyramine containing foods may potentiate effects



 

 

 

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