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Carnitine, L-Carnitine, Acetyl-L-Carnitine


Metabolism
Carnitine is synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine

Function
Carnitine is involved in the rate limiting step for beta oxidation
Carnitine transports fats across mitochondrial membranes.
Carnitine appears to decrease ketones in the body.

Requirements
Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid, because it is made from other amino acids.

Sources
Carnitine is found only in animal products, beef, and milk
As such, vegetarians may become deficient in carnitine over time.

Deficiency
muscle weakness, fatty deposits, impaired glucose control
impaired ketogenesis with hyperlipidemia

Therapeutics
heart disease - cardiomyopathy, arrythmia, CHF, mitral valve prolapse
angina pectoris, intermittant claudication
cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, trauma
infertility, Alzheimer's, AIDS, COPD

Toxicity
L-carnitine has few side effects
DL-carnitine can cause muscle pain and decreased exercise tolerance
Carnetine may cause diarrhea in high doses

Interactions
Carnetine is a synergist with taurine CoQ10, and pantethine (B5)
Carnetine is depleted by valproic acid, pivampicillin, emetine, sulfadiazine
adriamycin, lovestatin, pyrimethamine, and beta blockers

Forms
Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of L-carnitine by the enzyme ALCtransferase.
ALC helps move acetyl CoA into mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation
ALC may be of benefit in neurological disorders:
Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly,
ischemia and reperfusion of the brain (as from stroke)
cognitive impairment of alcoholism.
ALC may inhibit HPA activity, resulting in a reduction of cortisol levels

Dosage
Acetyl-L-carnitine orally 1-3 grams daily, in divided doses.

Toxicity
ALC is considered safe at these dosages without significant side effects,
even with long-term (one year) administration.
The most common adverse reactions are agitation, nausea, and vomiting.

 

 

 

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