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Carnitine, L-Carnitine, Acetyl-L-Carnitine

Carnitine is synthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine

Carnitine is involved in the rate limiting step for beta oxidation
Carnitine transports fats across mitochondrial membranes.
Carnitine appears to decrease ketones in the body.

Carnitine is a non-essential amino acid, because it is made from other amino acids.

Carnitine is found only in animal products, beef, and milk
As such, vegetarians may become deficient in carnitine over time.

muscle weakness, fatty deposits, impaired glucose control
impaired ketogenesis with hyperlipidemia

heart disease - cardiomyopathy, arrythmia, CHF, mitral valve prolapse
angina pectoris, intermittant claudication
cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, trauma
infertility, Alzheimer's, AIDS, COPD

L-carnitine has few side effects
DL-carnitine can cause muscle pain and decreased exercise tolerance
Carnetine may cause diarrhea in high doses

Carnetine is a synergist with taurine CoQ10, and pantethine (B5)
Carnetine is depleted by valproic acid, pivampicillin, emetine, sulfadiazine
adriamycin, lovestatin, pyrimethamine, and beta blockers

Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is an ester of L-carnitine by the enzyme ALCtransferase.
ALC helps move acetyl CoA into mitochondria during fatty acid oxidation
ALC may be of benefit in neurological disorders:
Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly,
ischemia and reperfusion of the brain (as from stroke)
cognitive impairment of alcoholism.
ALC may inhibit HPA activity, resulting in a reduction of cortisol levels

Acetyl-L-carnitine orally 1-3 grams daily, in divided doses.

ALC is considered safe at these dosages without significant side effects,
even with long-term (one year) administration.
The most common adverse reactions are agitation, nausea, and vomiting.




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