Hemorrhoids are varicosities of the hemorrhoidal venous plexus caused by dilation of the veins. External hemorrhoids are located below the dentate line and are covered by squamous epithelium. Internal hemorrhoids are located above the dentate line and are not visible.
Risk factors for hemorrhoids include: Pregnancy; Colon malignancy; Liver disease; Portal hypertension; Constipation; Occupations that require prolonged sitting; Loss of muscle tone in old age; Rectal surgery; Episiotomy; Anal intercourse; and Obesity.
No lab is specific.
Liver tests may be recommended.
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