There are several categories of exercise, including:
Aerobic literally means "with oxygen". Oxygen is used to "burn" fats and glucose in order to produce adenosine triphosphate, the basic energy carrier for all cells.
Anaerobic exercise refers to the process where glycogen or sugar is consumed without oxygen via glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation.
Target Heart Rate
One of the simplest ways to calculate the target heart rate is: Maximum Heart Rate (220 - age) X 70%. Thus, the target heart rate for a 40 year-old would be 126.
Vigorous exercise is associated with physical and nutritional demands. Several clinical disorders are associated with intense exercise, including:
Hyponatremia, a deficiency of salt usually from sweating that occurs with intense exercise in heat
Protein and amino acid deficiencies
Dr. Jeffery Skee, has presented evidence of eight damaging effects of vigorous exercise, which he has termed ÒExercise Induced Pathology (EIP),Ó a new sports performance disease. EIP includes the following factors:
1. Free radicals (destructive to all tissues in the body).
2. Acids (Disrupt the energy chain and directly damage tissue).
3. Ammonia (Headaches, blurred vision and cellular damage).
4. Inflammation (CRPÐone chemical marker for heart disease).
5. Thermogenics (Heat kills athletic performance).
6. Direct cellular damage (Hemolysis of muscle & blood cells).
7. Hormonal disruption (Catabolic hormones liquefy muscles).
8. Chemical toxicity (Increased free radical damage, particularly to the heart).
Incomplete recovery from endurance exercise after an overnight rest period is reflected by persisting weight loss and an elevated plasma aldosterone concentration, even in successful competitors.
Increased BUN can be caused by excessive protein intake or protein catabolism. Decreased BUN can be caused by malnutrition or anabolic steroid use.
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