Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
People with diabetes have difficulty processing glucose, a sugar the body uses for energy. This results in rising blood levels of glucose, and eventual spilling into the urine. At the same time, however, the cells of the body are starved for glucose. Tne characteristic symptoms of diabetes are polydipsia, polyphagia and polyuria - excessive thirst, excessive eating, and excessive urination.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is called adult-onset or non-insulin-dependant diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In this form the body doesnÕt respond properly to insulin. Hyperglycemia results from both an impaired insulin secretory response to glucose and decreased insulin effectiveness (insulin resistance). There is a delayed and decreased rise in plasma insulin following glucose ingestion despite their higher plasma glucose levels. Type II (NIDDM) accounts for 80% of diabetic cases.
The cause of Type II diabetes is often unknown (idiopathic). Other causes include: pancreatic destruction from surgery, hemachromatosis, or cancer; Hypophosphatemia (low phosphate); Glycogen synthetase deficiency; and Glucokinase deficiency associated with a genetic defect on chromosome 20. Genetic factors and obesity are important risk factors for type II diabetes.
Sandard labs include fasting blood sugar, blood glucose, electrolytes, venous pH, Urinalysis for glucose and ketones, CBC (WBC may be elevated), Hemoglobin Alc level, C-peptide insulin level, Islet-cell antibodies, T4 and thyroid antibodies. Additional tests include an oral glucose tolerance test (possibly with insulin levels, if diagnosis is questionable), intravenous glucose test (for possible early detection of subclinical diabetes). HLA-typing may also be considered.
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