Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) encompasses several diffuse pulmonary diseases, including chronic bronchitis, asthma, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, and emphysema. COPD usually refers to a mixture of chronic bronchitis and emphysema.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been associated with several causes:
Air pollution, cigarette smoking and allergies are considered to be the primary mechanism.
One study found that about half of those with COPD also had metabolic syndrome.
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