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Alzheimer's Disease


AlzheimerÕs disease is a degenerative organic mental disease characterized by progressive brain deterioration and dementia; usually occurring after age 65. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds after ruling out treatable disorders with similar characteristics.

Symptoms of Alzheimer disease include:

memory problems

disorientation, gets lost, misplaces everyday items

less interest in activities, lability of effect

anxiety, depression, mood swings, aggression

terminal phase - apathy, incontinence, inability to communicate

Profound impairment of recent memory is a characteristic symptom of AlzheimerÕs disease.


The exact cause of AlzheimerÕs disease is unknown. Toxic beta-amyloid deposits in neuritic plaques and arteriolar walls appear critical to pathogenesis. The beta-amyloid precursor gene is localized to chromosome 21.

Several mechanisms have been proposed, including: slow virus, metals (aluminum), acceleration in normal aging, and autoimmune attack.

Risk factors include: Aging, Head trauma, Low education level, Down syndrome, Positive family history, and Inheritance of the E4 allele of apolipoprotein E gene on chromosome 19.

Conventional Labs

Conventional lab tests are used to help rule out other causes of dementia: CBC, Chemistry panel, Thyroid function studies, Folate and B-12 levels, VDRL, Urinalysis, ECG (atrial fibrillation), and HIV antibody (in selected cases).

The Apo E4 test - E4 on chromosome 19 is associated with dementia.




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